In Wilms tumor, one or more tumors may be found in one or both kidneys. Wilms tumor may spread to the lungs, liver, bone, brain, or nearby lymph nodes. Most childhood kidney cancers are Wilms tumors, but in children 15 to 19 years old, renal cell cancer is more common.
Renal Cell Cancer (RCC)
Renal cell cancer is rare in children and adolescents younger than 15 years old. It is much more common in adolescents between 15 and 19 years old. Children and adolescents are more likely to be diagnosed with a large renal cell tumor or cancer that has spread. Renal cell cancers may spread to the lungs, liver, or lymph nodes. Renal cell cancer may also be called renal cell carcinoma.
Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney
Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney is a type of kidney cancer that occurs mostly in infants and young children. It is often advanced at the time of diagnosis. Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney grows and spreads quickly, often to the lungs or brain.
Children with a certain gene change are checked regularly to see if a rhabdoid tumor has formed in the kidney or has spread to the brain:
- Children younger than one year old have an ultrasound of the abdomen every two to three months and an ultrasound of the brain every month.
- Children one to four years old have an ultrasound of the abdomen and an MRI of the brain and spine every three months.
Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney
Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is a type of kidney tumor that may spread to the lung, bone, brain, or soft tissue. When it recurs (comes back) after treatment, it often recurs in the brain.
Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma
Congenital mesoblastic nephroma is a tumor of the kidney that is often diagnosed during the first year of life. It can usually be cured.
Ewing Sarcoma (Neuroepithelial Tumor) of the Kidney
Ewing sarcoma (neuroepithelial tumor) of the kidney is rare and usually occurs in young adults. These tumors grow and spread to other parts of the body quickly.
Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor of the Kidney
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the kidney is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. See thePDQ summary about Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment for more information.
Cystic Partially Differentiated Nephroblastoma
Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma is a very rare type of Wilms tumor made up of cysts.
Multilocular Cystic Nephroma
Multilocular cystic nephromas are benign tumors made up of cysts. These tumors can occur in one or both kidneys. Children with this type of tumor also may havepleuropulmonary blastomas, so imaging tests that check the lungs for cysts or solid tumors are done. Since multilocular cystic nephroma may be an inherited condition, genetic counseling and genetic testing may be considered. See the PDQ summary about Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment for more information.
Primary Renal Synovial Sarcoma
Primary renal synovial sarcoma is a rare tumor of the kidney and is most common in young adults. These tumors grow and spread quickly.
Anaplastic Sarcoma of the Kidney
Anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney is a rare tumor that is most common in children or adolescents younger than 15 years of age. Anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney often spreads to the lungs, liver, or bones. Imaging tests that check the lungs for cysts or solid tumors may be done based on test results and age of the child. Since anaplastic sarcoma may be an inherited condition, genetic counseling and genetic testing may be considered.