It’s a common, life-long condition that occurs when the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin, or the insulin it does produce doesn’t work properly. Insulin is a hormone that transfers glucose from the bloodstream into the cells to be used for energy. If you have diabetes, your body cannot make proper use of this glucose so it builds up in the blood instead of moving into your cells.
The chances of developing diabetes may depend on a mix of your genes and your lifestyle. Drinking to excess, for example, can help to cause diabetes. It’s a manageable condition. But when it’s not well managed, it is associated with serious complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nerve damage and amputations
There are two main types of diabetes (3)
Type 1 diabetes develops if the body can’t produce enough insulin, because insulin-producing cells in the pancreas have been destroyed. It can happen:
- because of genetic factors
- when a virus or infection triggers an autoimmune response (where the body starts attacking itself).
People who have this type of diabetes are usually diagnosed before they’re 40 and there’s currently no way to prevent it. It’s the least common type of diabetes – only 10% of all cases are type 1 (4). Type 2 diabetes. Develops when the body can still make some insulin, but not enough, or when the body becomes resistant to insulin. It can happen:
- when people are overweight and inactive. People who are an ‘apple-shape’ (with lots of fat around the abdomen) have a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes
- because of genetic factors.
People who have this type of diabetes are usually diagnosed when they’re over 40, and it’s more common in men. However, more overweight children and young people in the UK are being diagnosed with the condition. It is also particularly common among people of African-Caribbean, Asian and Hispanic origin. 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (5).
Symptoms of diabetes include being extremely tired, blurred vision and feeling more thirsty than usual (6)
The main symptoms of undiagnosed diabetes can include:
- going to the toilet to urinate more often than usual, especially at night
- feeling thirsty
- extreme tiredness
- unexplained weight loss
- genital itching or regular episodes of thrush
- slow healing of cuts and wounds
- blurred vision.
With type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms are usually obvious and develop very quickly over a few weeks. Once the diabetes is treated and under control, symptoms will go away quickly.
In type 2 diabetes, signs and symptoms may not be so obvious. The condition develops slowly over several years, and it might only be picked up in a routine medical check-up. As with type 1 diabetes, symptoms are quickly relieved once diabetes is treated and under control.
Drinking alcohol can contribute to the conditions that cause diabetes
There are three main ways drinking alcohol to excess can be a factor in causing diabetes:
1.Heavy drinking can reduce the body’s sensitivity to insulin, which can trigger type 2 diabetes (7).
2.Diabetes is a common side effect of chronic pancreatitis, which is overwhelmingly caused by heavy drinking.
3.Alcohol contains a huge amount of calories – one pint of lager can be equivalent to a slice of pizza. So drinking can also increase your chance of becoming overweight and your risk of developing type 2 diabetes (8).
Teetotalers and heavy drinkers have an equally high risk of developing diabetes
Low levels of alcohol could potentially provide some level of protection against developing diabetes. According to a review of 15 previous studies (in 2005) into the link between diabetes and alcohol, ‘moderate drinkers’ (who drank between one and six units per day) were a third less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than either people who didn’t drink alcohol or those who drank heavily. This is thought to be because low to moderate levels of alcohol actually make the body more sensitive to insulin (9) (10).
The effects of diabetes
When someone has diabetes, more of the glucose in their body stays in their blood – it isn’t being used as fuel for energy. The body tries to reduce blood glucose levels by flushing the excess glucose out of the body into their urine. Patients on insulin treatment for diabetes can develop abnormally low blood sugar levels. This is known as hypoglycaemia. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia include:
- slurring words
- a headache
- double vision
- abnormal behaviour
Hypoglycaemia can be particularly dangerous when you’re drinking because people can mistakenly think that you’re drunk and may not realise you need urgent medical help. Drinking heavily can also increase the chances of developing hypoglycaemia because it prevents the liver from making glucose when you drink on an empty stomach (11). For example, the risk of hypoglycaemia would increase the morning after you’ve slept following heavy drinking. If you have nerve damage as a result of diabetes, drinking alcohol can make it worse and increase the pain, tingling, numbness and other symptoms (12).
Staying in control
Drinking within the government’s lower risk guidelines will help keep your drinking in control. Here are three ways you can cut back:
1. Eat well. A healthy meal before you start drinking, and snacks between drinks can help to slow down the absorption of alcohol. It’s particularly important if you’re diabetic. Alcohol lowers blood sugar levels, so eat plenty of food, preferably carbohydrates, to make sure blood sugar levels stay steady.
2. Keep track of what you’re drinking. Use our free and simple online tool MyDrinkaware. As well as noting how many units you’re drinking, it will tell you how many calories you’re consuming too – and the equivalent in burgers, kebabs and donuts. It’s a great way to watch your units and your weight.
3. Know your strength. Alcoholic drinks labels will have the abbreviation “ABV” which stands for Alcohol By Volume, or sometimes just the word “vol”. It shows the percentage of your drink that’s pure alcohol. This can vary a lot. For example, some ales are 3.5%, some stronger lagers can be as much as 6% ABV. This means that just one pint of strong lager can be more than three units of alcohol, so you need to keep your eye on what you’re drinking.